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Application of starch in bakery and confectionery industries

Application of starch in bakery and confectionery industries

After cellulose, starch is one of the most abundant carbohydrates in nature. This substance is a storage polysaccharide in organic plants that plays an important role in human nutrition. Starch is a polymer that consists of glucose units. Glucose molecules in the starch structure are connected using α(1,4) and to some extent α(1,6) glycosidic bonds. Starch is one of the main components in bread or sweets, especially in gluten-free products, and its role in these products is to create structure and texture in the final product. However, in the confectionery industry, starch is mainly used as a gelling or thickening agent.
In order to improve the functional properties of starch, it can be modified, which are known as modified starches. Starch derivatives are used in the bakery and confectionary industries to replace gluten in gluten-free products, to replace fat in pastry fillings, to delay the staleness of bread, etc. Due to the abundance of starch, its cheapness and non-toxicity, it can be expected that its use will increase to produce new products. Starch derivatives in bread production due to the advantages of using starch derivatives on the quality of the final product, these materials should be used in the formulation of breads. These compounds can delay the staleness of bread and also cause product moisture retention, increase the volume of the bread loaf and increase the shelf life of the final product.
In addition, adding modified starches to the bread formulation instead of raw starch will produce a uniform product with controlled properties because the properties of raw starches vary from batch to batch. Among the starch derivatives that are used in the bakery industry, it is possible to mention the pre-gelatinized, cross-linked and stabilized starches, as well as maltodextrin. Starch derivatives in cakes, muffins and cookies are cake batters, muffins and brownies, a dispersion of flour, sugar, eggs, shortening, bulking agents, salt and a liquid phase which is usually water or milk. Unlike bread dough, the doughs of these products contain more water, which affects the behavior and performance of starch in such products.
In cake products, starch acts as a heat-induced structurant responsible for turning the watery dough into a porous solid structure. Especially during heating, the starch granules in the cake dough absorb water and swell, thus increasing the viscosity of the dough. Due to the presence of a large amount of water in the dough of cake products, almost all starch granules are gelatinized, resulting in a solid structure in which air bubbles are trapped. After cooling, the porous structure of the cake is formed. The volume and final structure of the cake depends a lot on the starch gelatinization time.
Fast and slow gelatinization both reduce the volume of the cake. One of the ways to control the gelatinization time is to replace part of the flour in the cake formulation with modified starch. In one study, the effect of replacing 10, 20 and 30% of flour with four types of modified corn starch (pregelatinized, acid hydrolyzed, cross-linked and dextrinized) showed that the use of modified starch in cake formulation It increases the softness of the cake and the shelf life of the product. Hora Sarzamin Industrial and Research Group is the largest producer of cereals in Iran, which produces all kinds of starch-based products daily by processing corn. Fructose and glucose syrups, maltodextrin, dextrose and starch are the main products of this collection, which are used in various food applications.

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