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Modified starches and their application in food industry

Modified starches and their application in food industry

Starch is a polysaccharide molecule that is abundantly found in various plant sources. This biodegradable and renewable polysaccharide is from various sources of starch, including cereals (wheat, corn, rice, barley, oats, sorghum, rye and millet), legumes (beans, lentils, red beans, mung beans, peas and soybeans). Roots and tubers (cassava and potato) are obtained. Most of the starch produced worldwide comes from corn. Starch consists of two parts:Amylose with a linear structure and amylopectin with a branched structure are stored in plants as discrete semi-crystalline granules. Amylose has a greater tendency to retrogradation and produce hard gels and strong films. In contrast, amylopectin is more stable when dissolved in water and creates soft and weak gels. Among carbohydrate polymers, starch is currently receiving much attention due to its extraordinary advantages in various food products.Starch that is extracted from plant sources without change is called natural starch. Due to its inherent limitations (lack of solubility in cold water and tendency to retrogradation, tendency to syneresis and creation of unstable gels), this starch usually has various limitations in its use in the industry, therefore, to solve these limitations, it is possible to The physical or chemical opinion modified it and turned it into a very diverse resource.
Corn starch is considered as an industrial starch and is used in many bakery products such as cookies, cakes, fillings, dairy products, sauces, semi-finished products, etc. Corn starch provides good consistency, texture, stabilization and gelling properties. According to available statistics, more than 50% of corn starch is used in the food industry in the world. In addition to improving quality, the use of corn starch in food products reduces the costs of food products.
Another interesting fact about corn is that two types of corn starch from natural corn and waxy corn with different physicochemical properties and different structures are used in industries. that each of these types of corn starch has its own specific uses and in case of chemical and physical modification, it finds unique properties in food and non-food industries.
Among the uses of starch in the food industry, it is used as a thickener, gelling agent, stabilizing agent or filler. Typically, starch-based food products provide 50-55% of a person’s total daily energy.
Starch is not only used in the food industry, but also in medicine. Apart from this, starch has a special place in the preparation of edible films. Starch is also used in the drilling industry, oil and gas sector. Starch is also very useful in bioethanol production, papermaking, printing and packaging industries.
Starch has been modified in different ways to achieve proper performance in different industries. In general, there are four different methods for modifying natural starch, which include chemical modification, physical modification, enzymatic modification, and double modification. In order to improve the adhesive properties of starch and increase shelf life, modifying starch using chemicals is the most common method. By creating physical and chemical modifications, it is possible to improve the adhesion properties, gelatinization temperature, resistance to temperature, cutting, acid and retrogradation of starch.
All kinds of commercial starches such as corn and other grains can be used in different food industries under physical or chemical modifications. Modified starch is modified to obtain thermal stability or resistance to heat, stability during the freezing process and dissolution in cold water slowly.
Chemical modification includes the introduction of functional groups into starch molecules and as a result changes their physicochemical properties. Hydroxyl groups (OH) in starch are the targets of these chemical changes. Chemical modification causes major changes in the characteristics of starch, including their gelatinization and retrogradation.
Among the types of modified starches widely used in food and non-food industries, we can mention acetylated, phosphate, hydroxypropyl, pergelatin and oxide starches. They show themselves.
One of the types of modified starches is cross-linked starches, the function of cross-linked starches depends on the amount of its links. This type of starch is widely used in the food industry as a thickener, stabilizer and texturizer. It is also used in salad dressings to create a concentration with stable viscosity at low pH and high shear forces during the homogenization process.
It is also used in the preparation of pie fillings, bread, puddings, baby food, soups, sauces and feeds.
During studies, it has been reported that corn starch bound with sodium trimetaphosphate/sodium tripolyphosphate reduces the solubility and transparency of corn starch paste. Also, the solubility of cross-linked corn starch decreases with increasing cross-linking degree at all temperatures compared to natural starch. This phenomenon is due to the increase in the density of bound starch, which prevents the breakdown of starch granules during gelatinization.
One of the types of chemically modified starch is monoester phosphate starch, which starch monophosphate esters offer more viscosity, transparency and stability even in freezing conditions and especially when coming out of freezing in food products.
Acetylated starch is another type of modified starch whose hydroxyl groups are replaced by ester (acetyl) groups. The characteristics of this starch are proper cooking, stability during storage, stable texture, good appearance, prevention of retrogradation, strengthening of hydrophobic properties, heat resistance, ability to form a film, and improvement of thermoplastic properties.
Acetylated starches retain water at low temperatures and freezing conditions. Especially acetylated starches with low amylose such as tapioca, potato and corn have this feature. This feature makes this type of modified starch prevent turbidity, gel formation and syneresis. For this reason, this type of modified starch usually causes the stability and clarity of the starch solution and increases the swelling and dispersibility of the starch granules and prevents retrogradation. This modified starch is used in the food industry as an anti-gel compound. Acetylated starch with high amylose is used in gummy candies.
It is also used as an acid-resistant binder in the food industry.
Chemically modified starch is used to replace fat in dairy products, which has a good effect on synergism and fluidity and viscoelastic properties of dairy products.
In addition, enzymatically modified starch can be exposed to amylase enzymes. Maltodextrin is an example of enzyme modified starch that is produced using amylase enzymes and is used in the food, pharmaceutical, etc. industries as an auxiliary substance, improver, filler, thickener.

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